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French postal workers helping lonely older people (2018)

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jgbishop
4 days ago
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Interesting service.
Durham, NC
GaryBIshop
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They Might Be Giants - Don't Let's Start (BEST QUALITY Official Music Video)

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From: ParticleMen
Duration: 02:38

Don't Let's Start from TMBG's first album. Directed by Adam Bernstein (who is a genius). Filmed at the New York Pavilion of the '64 Worlds Fair before it got all wrecked up.

TMBGs first album has been remastered by Sterling Sound and is available for download now! The remastered album has also been reissued on 180gr audiophile vinyl with original artwork and lyric sheet. Every order includes the instant download as well: https://found.ee/TMBGmerch

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GaryBIshop
5 days ago
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1 public comment
jepler
9 days ago
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I can't believe they exploded the [spoilers]!
Earth, Sol system, Western spiral arm
emdeesee
6 days ago
TMBG "radio station" now playing

We Stood Up to a Patent Troll and Won

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GaryBIshop
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The Treat

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The post The Treat appeared first on The Perry Bible Fellowship.

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jgbishop
13 days ago
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Twisted
Durham, NC
GaryBIshop
12 days ago
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tante
12 days ago
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"The treat"
Berlin/Germany

Deep Sleep May Help the Brain Clear Alzheimer's Toxins

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The brain waves generated during deep sleep appear to trigger a cleaning system in the brain that protects it against Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases.

Electrical signals known as slow waves appear just before a pulse of fluid washes through the brain, presumably removing toxins associated with Alzheimer's, researchers reported Thursday in the journal Science.

The finding could help explain a puzzling link between sleep and Alzheimer's, says Laura Lewis, an author of the study and an assistant professor in the department of biomedical engineering at Boston University.

The Brain During Sleep

During deep sleep, waves of cerebrospinal fluid (blue) coincide with temporary decreases in blood flow (red). Less blood in the brain means more room for the fluid to carry away toxins, including those associated with Alzheimer's disease.

Sleep brain

"Some disruption to the way sleep is working could potentially be contributing to the decline in brain health," Lewis says.

The finding also suggests that people might be able to reduce their risk of Alzheimer's by ensuring that they get high-quality sleep, says William Jagust, a professor of public health and neuroscience at the University of California, Berkeley, who was not involved in the study.

Scientists are already testing other lifestyle changes, like diet and exercise changes, to protect brain health. And sleep should be "high on the list" of measures worth trying, he says.

The study comes after decades of questions about the link between sleep and Alzheimer's.

Studies show that people with Alzheimer's often have sleep problems. And there's growing evidence that people with sleep problems are more vulnerable to Alzheimer's.

But there has never been a good explanation for this connection.

"It's been known for a long time that sleep is really important for brain health," Lewis says, "but why it is was more mysterious."

Lewis and a team of researchers wanted to solve the mystery.

So they found a way to use cutting-edge MRI techniques and other technologies to watch what was going on in the brains of 11 sleeping people.

One of the things they monitored was cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, the liquid that flows through the brain and spinal cord.

"And that's when we discovered that during sleep, there are these really large, slow waves occurring maybe once every 20 seconds of CSF washing into the brain," Lewis says.

These waves were a bit like the oscillations of a very slow washing machine.

Earlier studies of animals had found that the flow of CSF increases during sleep and helps carry away waste products, including the toxins associated with Alzheimer's.

But Lewis' team was able to see this process occur in the brains of people — in real time. And that led to another discovery.

"Before each wave of fluid, we would actually see a wave of electrical activity in the neurons," Lewis says. "This electrical wave always happens first, and the CSF wave always seems to follow seconds later."

The finding suggests that the electrical wave was triggering each wash cycle.

And the brain wave in question was a very familiar one called a slow wave. Slow waves appear when a person enters the state known as deep sleep, or non-rapid eye movement sleep.

And they play a role in both memory and brain disease, Lewis says.

"It's already known that people with Alzheimer's disease have less of these electrophysiological slow waves, so they have smaller and fewer slow waves," she says.

The new study suggests that this reduction in slow waves is reducing wash cycles in the brain, which would limit the brain's ability to clear out the toxins associated with Alzheimer's.

"It would make sense that if there's large waves of fluid, of CSF, that that might in turn cause mixing and dispersion with other fluids in the brain and help with this waste removal process," Lewis says.

Lewis' team made one more discovery about sleeping brains. As the flow of cerebrospinal fluid increases, blood flow decreases.

Less blood in the brain means more room for CSF to carry away waste.

The study's findings fit nicely with other research on sleep and Alzheimer's disease, Jagust says.

He was part of a team that studied the relationship between slow-wave sleep and a toxin called beta-amyloid, which accumulates in the brains of people with Alzheimer's.

They found something a bit disturbing.

"It's a vicious cycle where amyloid decreases sleep, and decreased sleep results in more amyloid," Jagust says.

The new study results suggest that the increase in amyloid could be the result of less waste removal in the brain, he says.

But Alzheimer's, like heart disease, is likely to have more than one cause, Jagust says.

"There are a bunch of things that are probably contributing to people's likelihood [of] getting Alzheimer's," he says, "and I think sleep is going to turn out to be one of them."

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GaryBIshop
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My company sold for $100M and I got zilch – how can that be?

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Heidi Roizen
Oct 25 · 6 min read

Dear Heidi:

I’m so raging mad right now my fingers can barely work the keyboard. Four years ago, I landed a VP of engineering job at a red hot startup, for which I was granted options for 2% of the company. I’ve been toiling away all these years through the ups and downs, setbacks and growth, and multiple rounds of capital. The new capital that came in subsequent to my joining reduced my percentage ownership, but I still had 1% of all outstanding shares even after that. While it hasn’t ended up becoming the unicorn I was hoping for, we recently were told that the company was being acquired for $100 million — so at least I thought I was walking away with a cool million bucks. But today, the transaction closed, and I was informed that my options are worth Bupkis! Nada! Zilch! My question, in addition to referring me to a good employment attorney, is, can you explain to me how this could possibly be true?

- — Former Millionaire, Dogpatch, SF


Dear Former Millionaire:

I feel your pain. I really do. I’ve always thought it unfortunate that common practice is to tell employees share amounts and strike prices, but not give them all the other numbers needed to help them evaluate what their options will end up being worth. For what it’s worth, I encourage all the companies I work with to be more transparent. I guess yours wasn’t.

There are probably multiple issues at play here, but I’m going to guess the biggest one is your preference overhang. Let me explain.

When venture capitalists buy equity, they typically do not buy the same shares employees get, which are common shares. They buy preferred shares. You can even guess from the name that these are somehow better. After all, if you were given the option of something preferred or something common, which would you take? There are all sorts of reasons this is so, including the obligation VCs have to protect the downside of investing the money they get from their Limited Partners — who are often entities like pension funds and school endowments. There are also some advantages to common shareholders by having two classes of stock — for example, this allows the company to price your common stock options at less than what the VCs pay because they have different attributes and, therefore, different values. (You can read more about preferred versus common here.)

The principal benefit of preferred shares for those who own them is that they get their money out first if the company is sold. While common practice is they get the same out that they put in, it is not unheard of for some of that money to carry a multiple, 2x or even more (meaning they might get two times or more their money out first), especially if the company had to raise money at a time when no one wanted to put any in without additional downside protection. Point is, this is the market, and it has been that way for a long time, and there is nothing inherently wrong with these terms. But if you don’t know about it, it sucks.

Most employees think that, if they own 1% of a company sold for $100 million, they will get $1 million. But that’s not the whole equation. What they will really get is the following:

Sales price minus legal fees minus carve-out minus banker fees minus preferred overhang, then that remainder is divvied up by percent of company-owned. (Whether the preferred stock is participating or not creates a further wrinkle which you can read about here, but for now, this captures most of what you need.)

The “easiest” way for your 1% to be worth nothing is to have that preferred overhang be a lot of money since all the other things in the equation usually do not end up being more than about 15–20% of the total value being received in the sale.

And often that preferred overhang is a lot. If you raised multiple rounds (regardless of the valuation of those rounds) and if you raised more than your company is now being sold for, you will get nothing.

This might be easier to understand by example, so let me paint a hypothetical picture from what you’ve told me about your situation that would result in your goose egg payout.

Let’s say your company raises a $2 million seed round, a $15 million Series A, and then a $50 million Series B. These have standard 1x preferences, meaning they will get their money out first in any sale of the company.

Then the company runs into problems, and no new investors are willing to come in. The board decides to start a sale process since the company is unprofitable and so cannot exist without new capital. But the company only has enough money to cover payroll for sixty days — not enough time to find a buyer and get a sale done. To increase the time they have to find a buyer, the existing investors offer an additional $10 million in a loan, or “bridge note” — but in exchange they will only put that in if they can get a 2x preference, in other words, they will get the first $20 million of any sale proceeds for doing this.

Four more months pass, and the company secures two competing bids to buy the company, the highest being $100 million. So they agree to sell for $100 million. The lawyers and bankers get paid $3 million for their work. Certain key employees were incentivized with a “ carve-out “ in order to stay through the transaction and make sure it would happen, they get 10% of the deal, or $10 million. The seed, Series A, and Series B investors get their money back, or $67 million, and the bridge note would be paid $20 million. So, $3 plus $10 plus $67 plus $20 equals $100 million — and zero for all common shareholders, including you.

Again, let me emphasize, this is not inherently unfair. When I raised capital as an entrepreneur about a million years ago, I sold preferred shares too. I even had the preferred overhang number on the wall in my office, to remind me how much money would have to go out the door before I or my team could make a single penny when the company finally got sold. The problem is most companies hide it.

In fact, one of my kids was recently interviewing at a startup and I told her to ask about the preferred overhang — she said the interviewer looked at her like she was asking about his sex life! She didn’t get a call-back.

Sadly, while I can explain to you why you have ended up in this predicament, I can’t tell you how to fix it, at least not for this at-bat. However, I hope this explanation helps you go into your next endeavor with eyes open and hopefully with better data. You can actually find out the preference stack for many companies by simply Googling “how much money has company X raised?” While that won’t give you any indication if the money was raised at other than a 1x, it will at least give you the ballpark preference overhang number. Even better, just ask what it is. But, be prepared for offended glares and raised eyebrows!

Wishing you better outcomes in your future

— Heidi

Send me questions at HelpmeHeidi@threshold.vc

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GaryBIshop
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